Integrated solutions for compliance with demanding international grid codes

Optimal grid integration

The share of wind energy in the electricity generation is on the rise in many countries. That is why the technical requirements of local grid operators regarding the electrical performance of wind energy converters (WECs) and wind farms (WFs) are also getting more extensive and challenging.

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Optimal grid integration

The share of wind energy in the electricity generation is on the rise in many countries. That is why the technical requirements of local grid operators regarding the electrical performance of wind energy converters (WECs) and wind farms (WFs) are also getting more extensive and challenging.

WEC technology

The basic electrical design of any type of ENERCON WEC is identical. The rotor is directly connected, that means without intermediate gearbox, to the multi-pole, electrically excited annular generator. The electrical power produced by the generator is fed via a full-scale power converter into the electric network. The converter system itself consists of a rectifier, a DC link and several inverters.

This is the major advantage of the annular generator. In electrical terms, it is completely decoupled from the grid. This enables a high level of rotor speed variability and, in turn allows for a more mechanically robust design with fewer moving parts. In addition to this the electrical properties of ENERCON WECs are solely determined by the inverters used and the corresponding FACTS- (Flexible AC Transmission System) controller. 

Advantages

  • Contributes to maintaining grid voltage and frequency
  • Optimum power quality through an adapted control system and operating mode in accordance with IEC standards and FGW (Federation of German Windpower) regulations
  • The idea behind the grid management system is to control and regulate power feed without power peaks
  • FACTS properties enable the turbines to provide system services similar to those provided by conventional power plants or beyond
  • ENERCON is the first manufacturer worldwide to have received certification confirming these power plant properties

The most important electrical properties of ENERCON wind energy converters are summarized below

ENERCON SCADA System

The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system developed by ENERCON comprises all components for data acquisition, remote monitoring and control of a wind farm. The adaptability of the standard topology consisting of ENERCON WEC and ENERCON SCADA System allows complying with the most demanding grid codes and additionally providing a multitude of system services. Provision of such system services allows wind farm operators in many markets to generate additional income, and ensure optimal operation.

ENERCON SCADA Server

The ENERCON SCADA server is the central component of the ENERCON SCADA system and is connected to the WECs via the wind farm's fibre optical data bus. It fulfils a variety of functions with regard to communication, data recording and control in the wind farm.

ENERCON SCADA Remote

The ENERCON SCADA Remote software enables customers to connect directly to the ENERCON SCADA server of a wind farm from anywhere in the world. As a result both real-time information and historical data are available.

Communication interfaces to the SCADA System

ENERCON offers a wide range of optional communication interfaces for data exchange with the SCADA system of a wind farm. The software-based ENERCON SCADA Process Data Interface (PDI) can make data available either via the OPC XML-DA  or the IEC60870-5-104  protocol. The hardware-based Remote Terminal Unit - Interface (RTU-I) supports Ethernet-based field buses such as Modbus TCP and IEC60870-5-104 as well as serial field buses like Modbus RTU and DNP3.

Closed-loop control of the wind farm at the point of connection

A wind farm controller can be used to accurately control the active and reactive power of a wind farm at the point of connection (PoC). In conjunction with the wide reactive power range of ENERCON WECs, a wind farm controller can be used for rapid control of the voltage at the network connection point. ENERCON offers two products for wind farm regulation, which differ with respect to speed and type of control: ENERCON SCADA RTU-C and ENERCON SCADA FCU. With these, the setpoints for control can not only be programmed specifically into the relevant device but also be received dynamically from the grid operator via a communication interface. This enables optimal integration of the wind farm into existing grids.

ENERCON SCADA Meteo

The ENERCON SCADA Meteo option is available for integration of meteorological data from a wind mast in the ENERCON SCADA system.

Models

Static and dynamic simulations are performed frequently during various phases of the project development by customers, consultants and grid operators. For this purpose the electric performance of the ENERCON WEC and the wind farm often need to be modelled. ENERCON offers comprehensive support through provision of information and models.

Publications

The following list provides an overview of ENERCON's latest publication on WEC grid integration.

[1]  

H. Emanuel, M. Schellschmidt, I. Mackensen, S. Adloff : "Asymmetrical Current Injection - Testing and Certification for New German Requirements", 15th Wind Integration Workshop, November 2016 - Request copy

[2]  

H. Emanuel: "Blindleistungsbereitstellung durch Windkraftwerke", 2. OTTI-Konferenz, Januar 2015 - Request copy

[3]    

M. Fischer, S. Engelken, N. Mihov, Â. Mendonça: "Operational Experiences with Inertial Response Provided by Type 4 Wind Turbines", IET Renewable Power Generation, Volume 10, Issue 1,  January 2016, p. 17 – 24 - Read now

[4]

S. Engelken, A. Mendonca, M. Fischer: “Inertial Response with Improved Variable Recovery Behaviour Provided by Type 4 Wind Turbines”, Proc. 14th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Brussels, October 2015 - Request copy

[5]

A. Al-khatib, B. Rohlfing, D. Guérette, B. Fazio, C. Morin, M. Fischer: „Hydro-Quebec Distribution Type Testing for Type 4 Wind Turbines Performed on Full Scale Wind Turbine and Power System Laboratory”, Proc. 14th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Brussels, October 2015 - Request copy

[6]

A. El-Deib, A.Beekmann, M. Fischer, V. Diedrichs: “Stability Monitoring of Commercial Wind Power Plants Connected to Weak Grids”, Proc. 14th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Brussels, October 2015 - Request copy

[7]

A. El-Deib, A. Trevisan, A. Mendonca, J. Cassoli, M. Fischer: “Assessment of Full-Converter Wind Turbines’ Immunity against Sub-synchronous Interaction using Eigenvalue Analysis”, Proc. 14th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Brussels, October 2015 - Request copy

[8]

S. Nikolai, A. Al-khatib: “Testing in Demonstrator Power Systems – a Valuable Part in the Development of Grid Integration Technology”, Proc. 14th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Brussels, October 2015 - Request copy

[9]

M. Fischer, S. Engelken, N. Mihov, Â. Mendonça: "Operational Experiences with Inertial Response Provided by Type 4 Wind Turbines", Proc. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Berlin, November 2014 - Request copy

[10]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, E. Quitmann, S. Nikolai: "Wind Power Plants for Weak Grids based on Type IV Wind Energy Converters", Proc. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Berlin, November 2014 - Request copy

[11]

E. Wieben, S. Nikolai, A. Beekmann: "Advanced Open Loop Control Strategies for Voltage Control in Medium Voltage Systems with a High Penetration of Wind Power Generation", Proc. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Berlin, November 2014 - Request copy

[12]

K. Pierros, N.Taveira, E. Erdmann, T. Christ, R. Schiwek, F. Schaber : "Controllability of Wind Power Plants - Capabilities regarding Voltage Control and Data Exchange", Proc. CIRED 2014, Rome, 2014 - Request copy

[13]

E. Quitmann, E. Erdmann: "Zukunftsorientierte Gestaltung von technischen Netzanschlussbedingungen - Von inhärenten Eigenschaften zu expliziten Anforderungen", German VDE-ETG magazine Dialog, published June 2014 - Request copy

[14]

E. Quitmann, E. Erdmann: "The Power System Will Need More! - How Grid Codes Should Look Ahead", Proc. 12th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, London, November 2013 -  Request copy

[15]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, K. Busker, S. Nikolai, H. Lorenzen: "Loss of Stability Margin Assessment during Wind Power Plant Operation in High Impedance Grids", Proc. 12th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, London, November 2013 - Request copy

[16]

D. McMullin, K. Pierros: "Voltage Control with Wind Power Plants - Current Practice with Type IV WTGs in the UK and Ireland", Proc. 12th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, November 2013 - Request copy

[17]

M. Fischer: "Asymmetrical Current Injection (ACI) by Wind Energy Converters During Normal Operation and Unbalanced Faults", 2013 IEEE PES GM, Vancouver, July 2013 - Request copy

[18]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, K. Busker, S. Nikolai, F. Kentler: "Operation of Wind Power Plants in High Impedance Grids", Proc. 11th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Lisbon, November 2012 - Request copy

[19]

V. Diedrichs, H. Lorenzen, I. Mackensen, S. Gertjegerdes: "Asymmetrical Current Injection addressed by ENTSO-E Draft Network Code", Proc. 11th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Lisbon, November 2012 - Request copy

[20]

C.-E. Langlois, M. Asmine, M. Fischer, S. Adloff: "On-site Under Voltage Ride Through Performance Tests - Assessment of ENERCON Wind Energy Converters based on Hydro-Québec TransÉnergie Requirements", Proc. 2012 IEEE PES GM, San Diego, 2012 - Request copy

[21]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, K. Busker, S. Nikolai, S. Adloff: "Control of Wind Power Plants Utilizing Voltage Source Converter in High Impedance Grids", Proc. 2012 IEEE PES GM, San Diego, 2012 - Request copy

[22]

M. Fischer, Â. Mendonça: "Representation Of Variable Speed Full Conversion Wind Energy Converters For Steady State Short-Circuit Calculations", Proc. 2012 IEEE PES T&D, Orlando, May 2012 - Request copy

[23]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, M. Kruse: "Reactive Power Capabilities and Voltage Control with Wind Turbines", Chapter 43 in "Wind Power in Power Systems", Wiley, 2012 - Request copy

[24]

M. Schellschmidt, S. Adloff, M. Fischer: "Performance Validation and Certification for Grid Codes", Chapter 12 in "Wind Power in Power Systems", Wiley, 2012 - Request copy

[25]

I. Jaskulski, J.-N. Paquin, J. Cassoli, M. Fecteau, C. Murray: "A Study of Collector System Grounding Design with Type-4 Wind Turbines at the Le Plateau Wind Power Plant in Canada", Proc. 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Aarhus, November 2011 - Request copy

[26]

V. Diedrichs, A. Beekmann, S. Adloff: "Loss of (Angle) Stabilty of Wind Power Plants - The Underestimated Phenomenon in Case of Very Low Short Circuit Ratio",Proc. 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, Aarhus, November 2011 - Request copy

[27]

M. Fischer, Â. Mendonça: "Representation Of Variable Speed Full Conversion Wind Energy Converters For Steady State Short-Circuit Calculations", Proc. 2011 IEEE PES GM, Detroit, 2011 - Request copy

[28]

E. Quitmann, M. Fischer, M. Schellschmidt: "Actual Development In The FACTS Capabilities Of Wind Energy Converters According To Latest Fault Ride Through Requirements For Distribution Systems In Germany", Proc. CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Frankfurt, 2011 - Request copy

[29]

M. Fischer, S. Wachtel, M. Schellschmidt: "Fault Ride Through performance of Wind Energy Converters with FACTS capabilities in response to up-to-date German grid connection requirements", Proc. 2011 IEEE Power Systems Conference & Exhibition, Phoenix, 2011 - Request copy

[30]

M. Fecteau, C.-E. Langlois, J. Marques, I. Jaskulski, A. Mendonca: "Assessment of ENERCON WEC Grid Performance based on Hydro-Québec System Requirements: a cooperation between ENERCON and Hydro-Québec", Proc. 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Farms, Québec City, October 2010 - Request copy

[31]

Beekmann, S. Wachtel, V. Diedrichs: "Evaluation of Wind Energy Converter Behaviour during Network Faults - Limitations of Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) Tests and Interpretation of the Test Results", Proc. 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Farms, Québec City, October 2010 - Request copy

[32]

M. Fischer, M. Schellschmidt, S. Adloff: "Various options for optimized integration of wind energy converters with FACTS Capabilities into power systems", Proc. 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Farms, Québec City, October 2010 - Request copy

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